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《博士论文:都会地下空间开发使用中的生态掩护的英语翻译稿》

作者:鸭脖体育官方 时间:2022-06-22 01:06
本文摘要:都会地下空间开发使用中的生态掩护Ecological Protection in the Development and Utilization of Urban Underground Space摘要:为总结都会地下空间开发使用中的生态掩护的计划设计要求,并为国家尺度《都会地下空间计划规范》中生态掩护章节体例提供技术支撑,本文依托对京沪高铁济南西客站片区焦点地下空间计划对地下空间开发使用生态掩护举行了专题研究。

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都会地下空间开发使用中的生态掩护Ecological Protection in the Development and Utilization of Urban Underground Space摘要:为总结都会地下空间开发使用中的生态掩护的计划设计要求,并为国家尺度《都会地下空间计划规范》中生态掩护章节体例提供技术支撑,本文依托对京沪高铁济南西客站片区焦点地下空间计划对地下空间开发使用生态掩护举行了专题研究。在对济南市以及地下空间开发区域的情况现状举行了详细调研的基础上,总结了与都会地下空间开发相关的都会生态系统的空间组成要素;以及联合案例分析了都会地下空间开发相关对都会生态系统影响,包罗对地质情况、地下水情况、大气情况、情况振动、植被等的影响等。

据此,进一步叙述对京沪高铁济南西客站片区焦点地下空间开发使用中生态掩护的详细要求,涉及地下水掩护、大气情况治理、情况振动与噪音控制以及都会的绿化建设等详细措施。Abstract: In order to summarize the specific ecological protection requirements in the development and utilization of urban underground space, and to write of the ecological protection part of the national standard “Standard for urban underground space planning”, based on underground space planning at Jinan west railway station, Shandong province,the ecological protection of underground space is studied. Along with the ecological research of the Jinan city and some cases, the main elements of urban ecological system and major influence on urban ecological environment in underground space development are analyzed, including geological environment, groundwater environment, atmospheric environment, environmental vibration, and vegetation. The specific requirements in ecological protection are discussed on the basis of the research on practical ecological protection measures in some urban underground comprehensive planning and worldwide and domestic experiences. The proposed requirements are involved in the specific measures of underground water protection, atmospheric environment curing and vibration control.关键词:都会地下空间使用;生态掩护;地下水情况;大气情况;情况振动Key words: Development and utilization of urban underground space; ecological protection, groundwater; atmospheric environment; environmental vibration引言Introduction经由几十年的生长,我国大型都会中心区域地面空间已经无法满足日益膨胀的人口以及繁重的交通需求,开发使用地下空间是解决这一都会病的行之有效的对策。当人们逐渐享受到地下商业、地下交通带来便利的同时,地下空间开发使用所引起的生态情况问题也逐步显现[1]。新编《都会地下空间计划规范》实时将生态掩护与情况康健纳入规范内容,明确了都会地下空间计划阶段需对工程建设、运营阶段对周边地质情况、地下水、情况振动与噪音、情况空气质量等敏感生态情况问题举行分析,并制定相应的情况掩护措施,并落实在整个地下空间开发使用的生命周期中。

After decades of development, the floor space of China's major urban central zones has failed to meet the expanding population and heavy traffic needs. The development and utilization of underground space is an effective countermeasure to solve such urban disease. When people come to enjoy the convenience brought by the underground business and underground transport, the ecological and environmental problems caused by the development and utilization of underground space are also gradually revealed [1]. The newly formulated ”Standard for urban underground space planning” timely includes the ecological protection and environmental health into the content of the standard, thus clarified that in the planning stage of urban underground space, the sensitive ecological environment issues such as the surrounding geological environment, groundwater, environmental vibration and noise, ambient air quality during the construction and operation phase shall be analyzed with the development of appropriate environmental protection measures, which shall be implemented in the whole life cycle of development and utilization of underground space.本文将联合在编的《都会地下空间计划规范》相关章节和京沪高铁济南西站片区地下空间的计划,全面地分析都会地下空间开发使用所可能带来的生态情况问题,针对性地提出掩护措施。In combination with the relevant chapters of "Standard for urban underground space planning" under formulation and the planning of underground space of West Jinan Station of Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway, a comprehensive analysis of the ecological environment may brought by the urban underground space development and utilization problems is made, and the targeted protection measures are put forward.1. 工程配景1. Engineering Background京沪高铁济南西客站片区地下空间建设工程位于济南市主城区西部的槐荫区,焦点区用地以公共设施用地为主,总面积约为6平方公里[2]。

焦点区空间结构计划为“两轴三心三区”,见图1,其中两轴为工具公共服务生长轴以及腊山河生态休闲景观轴;三心为工具部综合枢纽中心、中部文化艺术生意业务会展中心以及东部商业商务中心;三区则为总部商务区、文化商业区以及商务金融区。The underground space construction project of West Jinan Station of Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway is located in Huaiyin District, west of main urban area in Jinan City. The land of the core area is mainly for public facilities use, and the total area is of approximately 6 square kilometers [2]. Spatial structure plan for the core area is "Two Axes, Three Centers and Three Districts" as shown in Figure 1, of which the two axes refer to the development of public services in east and west, and ecological leisure landscape axis of Lashan River; three centers stand for integrated hub for the east and west, convention center of central culture art trade and eastern business and commercial center; three districts means the business district in the headquarter, cultural and business zone and business and financial zone.2. 情况质量现状调研2. Investigation of Present Environmental Quality Condition2.1 气象及大气情况质量现状2.1 Present Condition of Meteorological and Atmospheric Environmental Quality济南西客站片区地处暖温带大陆性季民风候区。多年平均气温13.5℃,平均降水量655.7mm。凭据济南市情况掩护局出具的情况质量陈诉,2010年济南市情况空气三项主要污染物,即可吸入颗粒物、二氧化硫、二氧化氮年均浓度划分为0.117毫克/立方米、0.045毫克/立方米、0.027毫克/立方米,二氧化硫、二氧化氮年均浓度到达国家情况空气质量二级尺度,可吸入颗粒物年均浓度超标0.2倍。

从国家环保部门通报的全国74个重点都会情况空气质量排名来看,济南恒久位于全国空气质量最差的前十名。The Area of West Jinan Railway Station is located in the temperate continental monsoon climate zone. The average annual temperature is of 13.5 ℃, and the average annual rainfall is 655.7mm. According to the Environmental Quality Report issued by the Environmental Protection Bureau of Jinan City: in 2010, the three major pollutants in ambient air of Jinan, namely, inhalable particles, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide their annual average concentrations were 0.117 mg / cubic meter, 0.045 mg / cubic meter and 0.027 mg / cubic meter respectively; the annual average concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide reached the second level of national ambient air quality standards. The annual average concentration of inhalable particles exceeded 0.2 times the standard value. Seen from the ambient air quality rankings of 74 key cities nationwide reported by the state environmental protection department, Jinan ranks the top ten of the worst air quality in the country in the long term.2.2 水情况质量现状2.2 Present Water Environmental Quality西客站片区在区域上属小清河水系。计划区附件发育的河流有腊山河、小清河、玉符河等。The Area of West Jinan Railway Station is in the river system of Xiaoqing River. The rivers in the Annex of planning area are Lashan River, Xiaoqing River and Yufu River etc.南北向发育的腊山河在片区中部穿过,腊山河源于南部的腊山,是小清河入济南市区之前最大的一条支流,自腊山分洪道至小清河口长5.4km,汇水面积27.1 km2,雨季为南部山区泄洪,现为城镇污水排放通道,河流水质严重污染。

The north-south flowing Lashan River passes in its Central Area. Lashan Rivers originates from the Lashan Mountain in the south, which is the largest tributary before Xiaoqing River went into the urban area of Jinan. It is 5.4km from the flood bypass of Lashan Mountain to the since maestra floodway to the mouth of Xiaoqing River, and the catchment area is 27.1 km2. During the rainy season, the flood is discharged in the southern mountains, and is now the urban sewage discharge channels, and the river water is severely polluted.小清河为片区北界限,小清河是山东境内的一条重要河流,全长237公里,流域面积10336平方公里,是省城主城区唯一的防洪除涝和排污河流,严重污染。Xiaoqing River is located in the north boundary of the Area, and it is a is a important river in the territory of Shandong with its total length of 237 km, the basin area is 10,336 square kilometers, which is the only riverway for flood prevention and control and pollution discharge in the main urban area of provincial capital, and not it is severely polluted.片区内地下水水位埋深小于6.0m(南5.5m~北1.5m),由西南流向东北。地下水的主要补给源为大气降水及上游地域的侧向径流补给,其次是浇灌回渗及河流侧渗等补给。

The buried depth of groundwater in the area is less than 6.0m (5.5m in the south ~ 1.5m in the north), which flows from the southwest to the northeast. The main supply source of groundwater is the atmospheric precipitation and the supply of side run-off from the upstream areas, followed by irrigation seepage back and side of the river lateral seepage.2.3 绿地现状2.3 Present Condition of Greenbelt现在来看,济南市建成区绿化笼罩率、绿地率和人均公共绿地面积划分到达35.6%、32.8%和10.8 m2,绿化笼罩面积和公共绿地面积划分到达11877 hm2、3658 hm2,开端形成了具有泉城特色的生态园林绿地系统,但尚未到达国家生态园林都会的建设尺度。建设部首品评出的11个国家生态园林都会的建成区绿化笼罩率均在40%以上,人均公园绿地面积均凌驾13 m2/人,与这些都会相比,济南市的绿地率和人均公园绿地面积等指标偏低,供人们游憩的公共绿地偏少。

Currently, the green coverage rate, greening rate and per capita public green area in the built-up area of Jinan city reached 35.6%, 32.8% and 10.8 m2 respectively, and green coverage area and public green area reached 11877 hm2 and 3658 hm2 respectively, thus initially formed the ecological garden green space system with the characteristics of Spring City, but has not yet reached the construction standard of national ecological garden city. The green coverage rate of the built-up area in the first 11 national ecological garden cities rated by the Ministry of Construction is more than 40%, and the per capita green area is more than 13 m2 / person. Compared with these cities, the indicators of green space ratio and per capita park green area in Jinan are relatively low, and the public green space for the people’s recreation is relatively less.3. 地下空间开发使用对生态情况的影响分析3. Impact Analysis of underground space development and utilization on the ecological environment3.1 地质情况3.1 Geological Environment计划区地貌类型为山前冲洪积平原和黄河冲积平原,地形平坦,相对最大高差10.1m,没有较陡的斜坡,没有山沟(谷),因此,不具备形成崩塌、滑坡、泥石流地质灾害的地质情况条件。区域开发不开采当地矿藏和地下水,因此不会发生严重的地面沉降。The landform in the planning area is the piedmont alluvial-proluvial plain and Yellow River alluvial plain, which is flat in terrain, and the relative maximum height is 10.1m. There are no steep slopes or mountain valley (gorge). Therefore, it does not constitute the geological environment conditions for the geological disasters of collapses, landslides and mudslides etc. The local mineral resources and groundwater will not be exploited in the regional development, and therefore not serious land subsidence will occur.3.2 地下水情况3.2 Groundwater Environment3.2.1 地下空间开发使用对地下水的影响3.2.1 Impact on groundwater from the development and utilization of underground space济南以泉城闻名天下,城东的趵突泉更有天下第一泉的美誉,城区的生长必须思量到对泉水的掩护。

济南市区及城郊共有七十二股名泉,其中城区及周边的趵突泉、五龙潭、黑虎泉、千佛山等名泉都距济南西客站片区有一定的距离,而城郊的名泉大多漫衍在长清区、历城区、平阴县等地,距西客站片区更为遥远。因此西客站焦点片区地下空间开发使用基本不需要思量对济南泉水的破坏和影响。

Jinan is famous in the world for its springs, the Spouting Spring in the east of the city even has the reputation of “The finest spring under the heaven”; thus the development of urban area must take the protection of the springs into account. There are 72 famous springs in urban and suburban areas of Jinan City, and the famous springs of Spouting Spring, Five Dragon Pool, Black Tiger Spring and Mount Qianfo are of a certain distance to the West Jinan Railway Station Area, while the famous springs in suburbs are mostly located in Changqing District, Licheng District and Pingyin County, which are even more distant from the West Railway Station Area. Hence the damage and impact of springs in Jinan is unnecessary to consider in the development and utilization of core area of West Railway Station Area.在地下水较浅的地域举行深基坑开挖需要举行大面积的人工降水,这将导致地下水的“漏斗式”下降, 使地下水的动力场和化学场发生变化,引起地下水中某些物理化学组分和微生物含量的变化,可能导致地下水的污染逐步加剧,水质恶化。The deep foundation pit excavation in areas of shallow groundwater requires a large area of artificial rainfall, which will lead to the "funnel type" descent of groundwater, which caused the changes of groundwater dynamic field and chemical field and cause the changes of certain physical and chemical constituents and microbial content in the groundwater, which may lead to the gradual aggravation of groundwater contamination and deterioration of water quality.因计划区南高北低,最高点33米,东北角最低,标高25.5米,最大高差8米,在地下工程建成之后,会对都会地下水情况形成一定的潜在影响,主要的体现有:阻滞地下水的排泄,改变地下水径流的偏向,引起地下水位的升降,若地下工程经由湖泊和古河流,则可能会诱发两者领悟等[3]。As in the planning area, the south is higher than the north, and the highest point is 33 meters, and the northeast corner is the lowest, the elevation is of 25.5 m and the maximum height is of 8 meters. After the underground project is completed, it will form a certain potential impact on the urban groundwater environment with the main manifestations of: resistance of groundwater drainage, changing of the flow direction of groundwater, causing the rise and fall of underground water level; if the underground project goes through the lakes and ancient riverways, it may induce the cut-through of them [3].地下建(构)筑物对地下水的拦截作用,使其两侧的地下水位发生变化,迎水面水位壅高,背水面下降,影响都会供水及地表植物的生长,进而影响整个都会的生态情况。

The interception of underground construction (structures) will cause the groundwater level change on both sides. The water level in the upstream face will be dammed, and the downstream face will be dropped, which will affect the urban water supply and growth of ground plant, thereby affecting the ecological environment of the entire city.3.2.2 地下水掩护措施3.2.2 Groundwater protection measures为了防止地下修建密渡过高而切断含水层,阻断片区南、北部区域之间地下水的水力联系,一般地下修建物间距以50~100m为宜,特别是应只管淘汰深度大、距离长、垂直于地下水流向的线状修建物建设。在地铁线路和地下环路经由的一定规模内,应只管制止再泛起大密度、大深度的地下建(构)筑物群。腊山河流域影响带应制止地下空间的建设,防止地下水位抬高与污染河水领悟。

In order to prevent the ground aquifer cut off by the building density which is too high, and the hydraulic connection of groundwater in the south and north areas, it is appropriate to set the underground buildings at the spacing of 50 to 100m, and in particular, to minimize the linear building construction with big depth, long distance, and is vertical to the groundwater flow direction. Within a certain range passed by the metro line and the underground ring road, the underground buildings (structures) group with high density and high depth should be avoided as possible. In the influence zone of Lashan River drainage basin, the construction in the underground space should be avoided to prevent the elevation of underground water level and the cut-through of polluted water river.由于都会建设和门路硬化,雨水难以下渗,门路低洼处容易发生较深的积水,形成“市中心看海”的尴尬局势,给路人和过往车量造成危险,在北京也已发生过整车被淹没的死亡案例,同时也给生态情况带来庞大破坏。因而,诸如济南西客站如此大规模的新区和地下空间建设,应在计划阶段就思量到对都会雨洪灾害的防范。

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通例的蓄洪涵形式如图3所示,可以用于暴雨时的蓄水和日常的雨水使用。Thanks to the urban construction and road hardening, the rainwater is difficult for the infiltration, and deeper ponding is easily formed in the road low-lying areas, forming the awkward situation of "seeing the sea in the downtown" and posing dangers to the passers-by and vehicles. There once occurred the deaths case of entire car was submerged in Beijing, and the ecological environment is also suffered from the tremendous damage. Thus, for such large scaled new district and underground space construction in West Jinan Railway Station, the prevention of urban rainwater disaster should be taken into account at the planning stage. The conventional flood storage culvert form is as shown in Figure 3, which can be used for storage of rainstorms and the utilization of daily rainwater.3.3情况振动与噪音3.3 Environmental Vibration and Noise3.3.1 地下空间的振动与噪音3.3.1 Vibration and noise of underground space地下空间开发建设中,种种修建机械设备和修建运输车辆是强烈的振源,修建施工振动因施工阶段差别而强度和偏向性有所变化。

地下空间发生的施工振动有稳态振动、非稳态振动和脉冲振动三种。During the development and construction of underground space, various construction machinery and equipment and construction transport vehicles are strong vibration sources and the building construction vibration will vary in intensity and direction due to different construction stages. There are three construction vibrations generated from underground space: steady-state vibration, unsteady-state vibration and pulse vibration.轨道交通列车运行时发生的振动属于随机振动,包罗:车轮与道岔钢轨等碰撞引起的振动;车轮偏心等因素引起的周期性激振;机车以一定速度通过隧道时的动力作用发生的振动;轨道不平顺等因素引起的随机性激振[4]。The vibration generated by rail trains running belongs to random vibration, which includes: vibration caused by the collision of vehicle wheel with rail of turnouts; periodic shock excitation caused by factors such as eccentricity of wheel; vibration generated by the dynamic action when the locomotive passing the tunnel at certain speed; random excitation caused by the factors such as orbit irregularity [4].南京已建地铁周边实测情况如表2所示,其测距较北京地铁稍远,其中H表现轨道至地面距离。

The actual measurement of vibration of underground railway built in Nanjing is as shown in Table 2. Its measuring distance is a bit farther than the Beijing underground, where H is the distance from the rail to the ground.计划片区内有工具向的地铁1号线以及南北向的地铁6、7号线,思量到60dB的噪音就可使70%以上的人急躁和惊醒,80dB的噪音会致使10%的人耳聋,需对轨道交通周边的计划做出调整。In the planning area, there are Metro Line 1 in the east to west direction, and Metro Line 6 and 7 in the south to north direction. Considering the fact that the noise of 60dB can make more than 70 % of people irritable and awakened, noise of 80dB will cause deafness of 10% people, hence the need for the adjustments of the surrounding planning of the rail transit.3.3.2 情况振动与噪音控制3.3.2 Environmental Vibration and Noise Control在地下空间开发使用的详细计划中,应制止强度较大的振源与声源位于地上空间敏感区域的正下方。

为制止振动的影响,与振源共用基础上的区域应摆设对振动不敏感的修建类型,对于地下轨道交通而言,应特别注意防止线路穿过文物奇迹修建、细密仪器实验室、歌剧院等修建四周区域,需凭据修建物对振动的要求选择线路与这些修建物的距离,一般不低于30m。为防止噪声影响,在接纳有效的噪声控制措施的情况下,距离声源15~30m规模的地下空间可以计划摆设对噪声不是特别敏感的修建类型,30m以外可以计划对噪声敏感的修建类型。须要时对地铁扣件、道床和敏感修建物内部设置隔振减震装置。In the specific planning of the development and utilization of underground space, the vibration source and sound source with greater intensity should be avoided to be located beneath the sensitive areas of floor space. To avoid the influence of vibration, building types which are insensitive to the vibration should be designed for the areas which share the same vibration source; for the underground rail transportation, special attention should be paid to prevent the line passing through the areas near the cultural relics and historic sites, precision instrument laboratory and opera houses etc. The distance of the lines to these buildings should be selected based on the requirement of the vibration by the buildings, which is generally not less than 30m. To prevent the impact from the noise, in the case of taking effective measures to control noise, for the underground space which is 15 ~ 30m from the sound source, building types which are not particularly sensitive to noise can be plane, and the building types which are noise-sensitive can be arranged beyond 30m. When necessary, vibration isolation and damping device can be set in the internal part of fasteners on the subway, track bed and sensitive buildings.3.4 大气情况3.4 Atmospheric Environment3.4.1都会交通隧道内空气的污染3.4.1 Air pollution in urban tunnel traffic作为解决都会交通拥堵的重要手段,都会地下通道在近年来获得了广泛的建设,尤其是在解决旧城掩护和交通计划之间的矛盾问题时,越来越多的交通干道开始接纳隧道的形式。

As an important means to solve urban traffic congestion, urban underground passage has been widely constructed in recent years; especially when solving the contradictions between the old city protection and transportation planning, more and more traffic roads began to use the form of the tunnel.隧道的建设也带来了另一个重要问题,由于隧道均为关闭结构, 频繁往来的各式车辆排放的尾气将致使隧道空气中尾气质的浓度不停增加,最主要的污染物为粉尘(PM) 、一氧化碳( CO) 、碳氢化合物(HC) 和氮氧化物( NOx )。The construction of the tunnel also brings up another important issue: since the tunnels are closed structures, emissions discharged by all kinds of vehicles which come and go frequently render the increasing concentration of the exhaust in the air of the tunnel. The main pollutants are dust (particle matter) (PM), Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).现在隧道的主要接纳竖井方式,将大量隧道中未经处置惩罚的废气直接释放到外部情况中,对隧道四周区域的空气造成连续性低浓度情况污染,从而对隧道周边区域黎民身心康健造成极大影响,因此隧道洞口的设置往往会引致强烈的阻挡。因此,都会隧道内的废气污染不仅仅是一个情况问题,还关系到人体康健和社会的稳定。

Currently, the vertical shaft is mainly used in the tunnel, through which a large number of untreated exhaust in the tunnel are directly discharged into the external environment, causing the sustained low concentrations of air pollution of the area near the tunnel, thus causing a great impact on the physical and psychological health of people lived in the surrounding areas near the tunnel. Therefore, the tunnel entrance settings often lead to the strong opposition. Thus, the air pollution in the urban tunnel is not just an environmental issue, but also related to human health and social stability.3.4.2 地下交通的大气情况效益3.4.2 Atmospheric Environmental benefits of underground traffic灵活车排放污染物的浓度与速率与行车速度成反比,拥堵是污染的一大主要原因,地下轨道交通和地下快速门路可以缓解地面交通的拥堵情况[5]。地面车速的提高将直接淘汰大面积的污染物排放,地下车行道内的污染物经高风塔排放,污染物落地浓度会大大减小(图4),如果经由一定空气净化工序处置惩罚后再经由排风口排放,将发生更大的情况效益。两者相加对减缓都会大气情况污染作用显着[6]。

The concentration and rate of motor vehicle pollutant emissions is inversely proportional to the vehicle speed, and congestion is the main reason for the pollution. The underground rail traffic and underground highway can relieve the congestion of the ground transportation [5]. The increase of ground vehicle speed will directly reduce the emissions of pollutants in large areas. If the contaminants in the underground roadway are emitted by high wind towers, then the concentration of pollutants in the ground will be greatly reduced (Figure 4); if emitted via the air vents after the certain treatment processes by the air purifier, greater environmental benefits will be generated. The combination of these two will bring even more significant mitigation to the atmospheric pollution in urban environments [6].3.4.3地下交通污染空气治理建议3.4.3 Treatment advices for underground traffic air pollution(1) 总体来看,地下交通对都会情况的综合效益利大于弊,应鼎力大举生长都会公共交通系统,合剃头展地下轨道交通。(1) In general, the benefits of underground transportation outweigh the disadvantages to the comprehensive benefits of the urban environment, thus the urban public transport systems should be vigorously developed, and the underground rail transportation should be rationally developed.(2) 地下修建宜接纳节电、节能设计和技术。(2) The electricity-saving, energy-saving design and technology should be adopted in the underground construction.(3) 地下交通设施排风口的设计应注意其位置和高度避开人群,满足有关排放尺度要求。(3) The air vents of underground transportation facilities should be designed with the special attention on its location and its height should be separated from the crowd, and it should meet the relevant emission standards.(4) 须要时可对地下交通设施向大气排挤的污染空气举行一定的净化处置惩罚。

(4) If necessary, certain air purification treatment can be made to the polluted air discharged to the atmosphere by the underground transportation facilities.3.5 施工弃土3.5 Construction Spoil3.5.1 施工弃土的危害3.5.1 Harms of construction spoil济南西客站片区计划总用地近6平方公里,修建面积1400万m2,使用地下空间规模凌驾5000万m3,地下空间的开发使用一定会发生大量的渣土,包罗修建垃圾和施工弃土两部门,其中以后者为主。如得不到妥善处置惩罚,将导致土地占用、有毒弃土的情况污染以及扬尘和水土流失污染等多种生态情况问题,对济南市的可连续生长发生倒霉的影响。The total land for use in the Area Planning of West Jinan Railway Station is of nearly six square kilometers, and the construction area is of 1.4 million m2. The size for the utilization of underground space is more than 50 million m3. The development and utilization of underground space is bound to generate a lot of muck, which includes two parts of construction waste and construction spoil, and the latter is the principle one. If not properly treated, a variety of ecological and environmental problems such as land occupation, environmental pollution of toxic spoil, raise dust as well as water and soil erosion pollution will be rendered, thus causing adverse impact on the sustainable development in Jinan City.3.5.2 施工弃土的处置3.5.2 Disposition of construction spoil处置惩罚施工弃土应只管实现计划区域内或者相近计划区域之间的挖、填土平衡,淘汰运输距离以及非法消纳,对于仍无法平衡的弃土或者有毒弃土应就近调配往运输距离合适的大型暂时消纳场[7]。The construction spoil should be disposed to achieve the balance between excavation and filling in the planned area or the vicinity of planning areas, and the reduction of transport distances and illegal consumption. For the spoil still cannot be balanced or toxic spoil, it should be deployed to the large temporary consumptive field with the nearest suitable transport distance [7].3.6 绿化植被3.6 Greening vegetation3.6.1地下空间开发使用对绿化的影响3.6.1 The impact on the greening by the development and utilization of underground space都会地下空间开发将会改变原有地表土层结构,从而对地表植被的生长发生一定影响,主要体现在:The development of urban underground space will change the original structure of the surface soil, thus cause certain impact on the growth of vegetation, which is mainly reflected in:(1) 生长多年的乔、灌木根系可下扎深度一般在50~300cm,地下设施有限的覆土厚度对植物根系垂直生长发生影响;(1) The roots growth depth of perennial arbors and shrubs are generally from 50 to 300cm. The limit thickness of covering soil of underground facilities will pose impact on the vertical growth of plant roots;(2) 地下空间设施会使植物失去保水、透水的土壤底层,对植物根系生长水分供应发生影响;(2) The underground space facilities will make plants lose the soil bottom layer with has the function of water retention and permeability, and also pose influence in the water supply to the plant root growth;(3) 地下空间设施上植物根系在土壤中的漫衍变浅,容易受到地面温度影响;(3) The distribution of plant roots on the underground space facilities will become shallow and will be susceptible to ground temperature;(4) 与实地生长的园林植物相比,地下设施上的覆土植物的长势显着降低。

(4) Compared with the garden plants grew in the field, the growth vigor of earthing plants on the underground facilities will be significantly reduced.3.6.2 生态绿化掩护3.6.2 Ecological greening protection(1) 制定区域地下空间开发计划时,如果地表存在需要掩护或保留的植被,应该思量地下空间开发对其生长的影响,须要时咨询当地园林专家。(1) When developing the development planning of the regional underground space, if there is the vegetation on surface which should be protected or reserved, the impact on its growth by the underground space development should be considered; when necessary, the local garden experts should be consulted.(2) 在都会绿地下空间开发区域,应保留适当的覆土厚度,并思量适当的开发比例[8]。(2) When developing areas under the urban green space, appropriate thickness of covering soil should be retained and the appropriate proportion of development should be considered [8].(3) 对高峻植物麋集的区域以及地下水流梯度较大的区域建议不举行地下空间开发。

(3) The underground space development is not recommended for the areas with the dense cultivation of tall plants and those with larger gradient in groundwater flow.(4) 在制定区域地下空间开发的计划时,应联合区域情况现状,提出相应的绿化控制尺度,通过提高绿地系统的生态效益真正到达改善当地生态情况的效果。(4) When developing the regional underground space development plan, the present condition of the area environment should be combined with the corresponding green control standards, and truly improve the effect of the local ecological environment by improving the ecological benefits of green space system.4 结论4 Conclusion本文综合分析了京沪高铁济南西客站片区地下空间开发使用历程中的地下水掩护、地铁周边情况振动、都会门路交通所引起的空气污染以及施工弃土等生态情况掩护问题,并据此在地下空间计划中提出了以下几点建议:In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of the groundwater protection in the process of development and utilization of underground space in the West Jinan Station of Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway as well as the ecological and environmental protection problems of air pollution and construction spoil caused by the surrounding ambient vibration of subway and urban road traffic; and following recommendations are proposed accordingly in the underground space planning:(1) 地下空间选址应思量灾害性地质条件影响,对开发区域内市政管网等设施应做好掩护计划。(1) The impact of disasters geology condition should be considered in the site selection of underground space, and the conservation planning should be made to the facilities of municipal pipe network in the development area.(2) 地下空间选址应当只管避地下水流通道,并预留雨水下渗通道和空间。

(2) The groundwater flow channel should be avoided as possible for the site selection of underground space, and the channel and space for rainwater infiltration should be set aside.(3) 都会地面大型绿地下空间开发使用应接纳措施保证雨水下渗不受影响。(3) Measures should be taken in the development and utilization of large urban green space underground space to ensure it is separated from the impact from the rainwater infiltration.(4) 轨道交通线路宜远离振动敏感区域和重要修建等情况掩护目的;地下线路宜远离大气情况掩护敏感区域和重要修建等情况掩护目的。(4) The rail transit line should be kept away from environmental protection targets which are vibration sensitive areas and important buildings; it is better for the underground lines to stay away from environmental protection targets which are sensitive areas to the atmospheric environmental protection and important buildings.(5) 在计划阶段应对地下空间开挖历程中发生的施工弃土的运输及消纳制定合理方案。

(5) The reasonable program should be formulated for the construction spoil transportation and consumption generated in the excavation process of underground space in the course of the planning stage.(6) 地下空间开发使用应满足植物康健生长所需要的土层厚度、排水要求和地下生物通道等情况要求。(6) The development and utilization of underground space should meet the environmental requirements of soil depth necessary for the healthy growth of plants, drainage requirements and underground biological channels.本文结果可用于指导京沪高铁济南西客站片区地下空间开发使用中的生态情况掩护,同时也是对《都会地下空间计划规范》(征求意见稿)中生态掩护章节相关条文适用性的磨练,这对以后海内大型地下空间开发历程中的生态情况掩护有着重要的借鉴意义。

The results in this paper can be used to guide the ecological and environmental protection in the development and utilization of underground space in the West Jinan Station of Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway, and they are the examination of applicability of the relevant provisions in the chapters of ecological protection in the "Standard for urban underground space planning" (Exposure Draft) , which bears the reference significance in the ecological and environmental protection for the future domestic large underground space development process.。


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